State: Alabama, FDA Version: 2005

Bacteria – Bacteria are germs with only one cell that can multiply into large numbers when food is in the danger zone for more than 4 hours.

Biological Contamination- Biological contamination occurs when germs or toxins are introduced into foods, making it potentially hazardous.

Chemicals – In this course, chemicals are referred to as ingredients in cleaning, sanitizing, or pesticide products that make people sick if eaten.

Cold Holding – Cold holding is when you keep food cold by using refrigeration or ice.

Cross Contamination – When germs from one food item are passed to another food item, usually raw food to ready-to-eat food.

Double Handwash – Lather hands with soap and warm water for approximately 20 seconds, rinse, and repeat a second time. Dry hands with paper towel, air dryer or roll of linen towels.

Danger Zone – The Danger Zone is when the temperature of food is between 41 degrees F(5 degrees C) and 135 degrees F. This is called the danger zone because bacteria will grow quickly between these temperatures.

Foodborne Disease (FBD)- Disease that is contracted by eating contaminated food. Three categories: 1). Disease caused by parasites. 2). Disease caused by micro-organisms that release toxins inside the gastro-intestinal tract. 3). Disease cause by consuming chemicals containing natural toxins.

Foodborne Disease Outbreak- Two or more people that have the same laboratory confirmed Foodborne Disease (FBD) agent that is epidemiologically associated with the consumption of the same food or meal.

Foodborne Illness- Sickness caused from germs or toxins in food. This is also called food poisoning. Food may be contaminated as a result of environmental mishandling (e.g. poor handwashing). Some toxins may exist in the food itself (e.g. some mushrooms) . Symptoms usually involve nausea, vomiting and/or diarrhea. Some food-borne toxins can affect the nervous system.

Food Poisoning- See Foodborne illness.

Food Thermometer - A metal-stem probe thermometer used to take temperatures of food. Hot holding – Holding food hot after it has been properly cooked or reheated. Food must maintain a temperature of 135 degrees F or hotter.

Hair Restraints - Includes hats, hair coverings or nets, beard restraints, and clothing that covers body hair, that are designed and worn to effectively keep their hair from contacting exposed food; clean equipment, utensils, and linens; and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles. Exclusions apply.

Infected – A cut or burn that is swollen, red, or has pus.

Reheating – The process of making a cold food hot. Food must be heated food from 41°F(5° C) to 165° F(74° C) within two hours.

Parasites – These are tiny worms that live in fish, meat and humans.

Potentially Hazardous Foods – Moist, nutrient-rich foods that supports the growth of bacteria when the temperature is between 41°F degrees (5 degrees° C) and 135 degrees F. This terms has been replaced by Time-Temperature Control for Safety (TCS). For a list of foods subject to TCS, view TCS List.

Ready-to-Eat Food
1) Is food that is in a form that is edible without additional preparation to achieve food safety.
2) Is food that is raw or partially cooked animal food and the consumer is advised.
3) Is prepared in accordance with a variance that is granted.
4) May receive additional preparation for palatability (taste preference) or aesthetic (appearance), epicurean (overall flavor blend), gastronomic (appeal to digestive system), or culinary (art form of cooking) purposes.

Reheating - Reheat food that was previously cooked, then held or cooled to kill disease-causing bacteria. Even when foods are cooked properly, bacteria may be present. Heat food food from 41°F(5° C) to 165°F(74°C) within two hours to prevent the growth of bacteria. Sanitize – The final step to removing bacteria from food contact surfaces that have just been cleaned. Many places use a solution made up of one teaspoon of bleach to one gallon of water to sanitize equipment and utensils.

Describes foods subject to Time-Temperature Control for Safety (refer to Potentially Hazardous Food). For a list of food subject to TCS, view TCS List.

Virus – Viruses are germs that can only reproduce inside of a living cell. It takes a small number of viruses to make someone sick. Many viruses get into the food from the lack of handwashing especially after using the toilet and then touching food.